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Hintergrund.de - πριν από 1 ώρα 25 λεπτά

Was bringt der Überwachungswahn? Massive Einschränkungen der Bürgerrechte ohne Sicherheitsgewinn -

Von ANDREAS VON WESTPHALEN, 29. Mai 2015 -

Wohl kaum ein Gesetz ist so umstritten wie der USA PATRIOT Act, der kurz nach den Anschlägen des 11. Septembers massiv die Bürgerrechte in den Vereinigten Staaten einschränkte und den Ermittlungsbehörden rechtlich einen sehr grossen Spielraum eröffnete. Der damalige US-Justizminister John Ashcroft forderte, das Gesetz innnerhalb von drei Tagen anzunehmen. Jedes Zögern helfe nur den Terroristen. Ohne öffentliche Debatte wurde daraufhin das Gesetz durch Kongress und Senat geboxt, wobei nur wenige Abgeordnete und Senatoren überhaupt die Möglichkeit hatten, den Gesetzestext zu lesen.

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Selbst-Profilierung im Bürgerkrieg

IMI Tübingen - πριν από 2 ώρες 54 λεπτά
Seit annähernd bekannt wurde, in welchem Umfang Geheimdienste verschiedener Staaten flächendeckend die Bevölkerung ausspähen, wird allerorten zu einem zurückhaltenderen und vorsichtigeren Umgang mit persönlichen Daten und Datenträgern aufgerufen. Das Verhalten der Nutzer_innen hat sich demgegenüber bislang nur wenig gewandelt, selbst (…)

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Asiens Münchner Sicherheitskonferenz

German Foreign Policy - πριν από 16 ώρες 16 λεπτά
(Eigener Bericht) - Mit ihrer Teilnahme am heute beginnenden "Shangri-La Dialogue" ("Münchner Sicherheitskonferenz Asiens") sucht die deutsche Verteidigungsministerin den sicherheitspolitischen Einfluss Berlins auf dem asiatischen Kontinent auszubauen. Die Tagung, zu der auch US-Verteidigungsminister Ashton Carter sowie ein führender chinesischer General erwartet werden, gilt als Spitzenveranstaltung asiatischer Sicherheitspolitik; seit die Vereinigten Staaten ihr "Pazifisches Jahrhundert" ausgerufen haben, findet sie zunehmend Beachtung auch im Westen. Bereits seit mehreren Jahren bemüht sich Berlin gezielt, die militärpolitische Kooperation mit ausgewählten Ländern der Asien-Pazifik-Region zu intensivieren, darunter Australien, aber auch Indien, wo Ursula von der Leyen in den vergangenen Tagen Rüstungsverkäufe gefördert und gemeinsame Schritte in puncto Cyber-Krieg angebahnt hat. Jenseits offener Zusammenarbeit zwischen Verteidigungsministerien und Streitkräften bahnen zivile Vorfeldorganisationen der deutschen Außenpolitik militärpolitische Kooperationen mit anderen Ländern an. So bemüht sich die Konrad-Adenauer-Stifung (CDU) um den Ausbau einschlägiger Kontakte unter anderem nach Südkorea und Malaysia.

UN Report Says Governments Must Not “Backdoor” Encryption for Spying

The Intercept - Engl. - Πέμ, 28/05/2015 - 23:42

A landmark United Nations report is urging governments not to ban or mandate surveillance “backdoors” in encryption and anonymity tools that are used to protect the privacy of communications.

The 18-page report, published Thursday, was authored by the U.N.’s special rapporteur on freedom of expression, David Kaye. It comes amid efforts to crack down on encryption technology in the United States, with federal agencies claiming that encryption is hampering their ability to investigate criminals and terrorists.

Kaye’s report says that “discussions of encryption and anonymity have all too often focused only on their potential use for criminal purposes in times of terrorism. But emergency situations do not relieve States of the obligation to ensure respect for international human rights law.”

It recommends that:

States should promote strong encryption and anonymity. National laws should recognize that individuals are free to protect the privacy of their digital communications by using encryption technology and tools that allow anonymity online. Legislation and regulations protecting human rights defenders and journalists should also include provisions enabling access and providing support to use the technologies to secure their communications.

States should not restrict encryption and anonymity, which facilitate and often enable the rights to freedom of opinion and expression. Blanket prohibitions fail to be necessary and proportionate. States should avoid all measures that weaken the security that individuals may enjoy online, such as backdoors, weak encryption standards and key escrows.

Kaye told The Intercept in an interview Thursday that he viewed the report as “the first attempt to create a legal framework for digital security.”

“It’s about the legal framework that human rights law establishes for freedom of expression,” Kaye said. “Hopefully advocates will make use of it when cases around privacy and freedom of expression get litigated.”

Human rights group Access said in a statement that it welcomed the report, calling it a “landmark” piece of work that showed encryption was “fundamental” for exercising freedom of expression. “It’s a sober rebuke of baseless fear-mongering from those who say encryption only helps criminals and terrorists,” said Access’s senior policy counsel Peter Micek.

Encryption works by scrambling communications so that if they are intercepted they cannot be read or listened to, unless the encryption is broken or circumvented. It is routinely used to secure online banking and shopping transactions and increasingly to protect the privacy of instant messages and emails. Tools used to browse the Internet anonymously – such as Tor or Virtual Private Networks – mask your computer’s unique IP address, making it harder for law enforcement, intelligence agencies, advertisers, and Internet service providers to track your online activity.

Since the first surveillance revelations from National Security Agency whistleblower Edward Snowden in 2013, more companies have adopted encryption to secure their customers’ data and communications. Last year, for instance, the messaging app WhatsApp announced that it was implementing strong encryption for its more than 600 million users. Moreover, in the aftermath of the Snowden leaks, more people reportedly started using anonymity tools like Tor to browse the Web.

The boom in encryption has sparked a panicked response from governments and law enforcement agencies. The FBI has attacked companies for beefing-up their useage of encryption because “bad guys” can use it to conceal their nefarious activities. And the U.K. prime minister has appeared to agree, suggesting he would be open to some sort of encryption ban.

But Kaye, the U.N. Free expression rapporteur, told The Intercept that he wants to see more encryption, not less. He says he would like to see a transition towards an “encrypted Internet,” with encryption built in to websites, email providers, and other communication providers by default. He says governments should only be allowed to decrypt communications on a “targeted, case-by-case basis” when approved by a court, subject to domestic and international law.

“It’s not about hiding, it’s about exercising the right that you have under human rights law,” said Kaye, who is also the director of the International Justice Clinic at the University of California, Irvine. “If you create an Internet that is encrypted and is secure, you are giving people a default setting of privacy which advances their ability to do research, to exchange information, to do all the things that they are guaranteed under human rights law. That move is critical.”

Kaye says he solicited contributions to his report from all 193 U.N. member states, including from governments in the the Five Eyes surveillance alliance – the United States, United Kingdom., Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Documents from Snowden have previously shown how spy agencies in Five Eyes countries have worked in secret to circumvent and attack widely used encryption and anonymity tools.

About a dozen government representatives sent replies to Kaye, including U.S. ambassador to the U.N. Pamela Hamamoto, who asserted that the United States was committed to firmly supporting “the development and robust adoption of strong encryption.” Other Five Eyes countries did not respond.

Kaye is due to formally present his report to the U.N.’s human rights council (pictured above) on June 17.

Photo: Valentin Flauraud/Keystone/AP

The post UN Report Says Governments Must Not “Backdoor” Encryption for Spying appeared first on The Intercept.

Blockupy ruft zu den Aktionen gegen den G7-Gipfel auf

Stop G7 - Elmau 2015 - Πέμ, 28/05/2015 - 23:05

In knapp einer Woche startet der G7-Gipfel in Elmau – und natürlich auch
der Protest gegen die 7 Zwerge in den Bergen, die meinen die
Lebensbedingungen der Menschen weltweit nach ihren Vorstellungen gestalten
zu können. Viele Blockupist@s aus dem ganzen Blockupy-Spektrum sind bei
den vielfältigen Aktionen und Veranstaltungen anzutreffen!
Los geht’s mit dem Alternativgipfel 2015 für eine friedliche, solidarische
und ökologische Welt ab dem 3.6 in München. Weiter dann mit der G7-Demo
München am 4.6 gegen TTIP und Armut und für Klimagerechtigkeit, ebenfalls
in München. Den Abschluss bilden dann die Camps und Aktionen vom
AktionsBündnis Stop-G7-Elmau, die den Gipfel mit Demonstrationen und
Aktionen von Garmisch aus begleiten und stören werden.

https://www.facebook.com/blockupy.europe?fref=nf

Emails Reveal Dairy Lobbyist Crafted “Ag-Gag” Legislation Outlawing Pictures of Farms

The Intercept - Engl. - Πέμ, 28/05/2015 - 22:38

Across the country, legislatures are responding to whistleblowers and activists who have exposed inhumane and at times unsanitary practices at farms by passing laws that criminalize the taking of photos or videos at agricultural facilities.

Farming interests have publicly backed the campaign to outlaw recording. But emails I obtained through a records request reveal that in Idaho, which passed an “ag-gag” law last year, dairy industry lobbyists actually crafted the legislation that was later introduced by lawmakers.

State Sen. Jim Patrick, R-Twin Falls, said he sponsored the bill in response to an activist-filmed undercover video that showed cows at an Idaho plant being beaten by workers, dragged by the neck with chains, and forced to live in pens covered in feces, which activists said made the cows slip, fall and injure themselves. The facility, Bettencourt Dairies, is a major supplier for Burger King and Kraft. The workers who were filmed were fired.

Introducing the bill, Patrick compared the activists behind the Bettencourt video to marauding invaders who burned crops to starve their enemies. “This is clear back in the sixth century B.C.,” Patrick said, according to Al Jazeera America. “This is the way you combat your enemies.”

Idaho is a major center for dairy production, an industry that generates $2.5 billion a year in the state.

Patrick’s bill was introduced on February 10, 2014, sailed through committee within days, and was signed by Gov.  C.L. “Butch” Otter on February 28. The legislation calls for a year in jail and fines up to $5,000 for covertly recording abuses on farms or for those who lie on employment applications about ties to animal rights groups or news organizations..

But the groundwork was laid by Dan Steenson, a registered lobbyist for the Idaho Dairymen’s Association, a trade group for the industry.

Steenson testified in support of the ag-gag bill, clearly disclosing his relationship with the trade group. Emails, however, show that he also helped draft the bill. On January 30, before Sen. Patrick’s bill was formally introduced, Steenson emailed Bob Naerebout, another Dairymen lobbyist, and Brian Kane, the Assistant Chief Deputy of the state attorney general’s office, with a copy of the legislation. “The attached draft incorporates the suggestions you gave us this morning,” Steenson wrote, thanking Kane for his help in reviewing the bill. Kane responded with “one minor addition” to the legislation, which he described to Steenson as “your draft.”

The draft text of the legislation emailed by Steenson closely mirrors the bill signed into law.

“Dan and the Idaho dairymen had a large input but also Idaho Farm Bureau as well as Idaho-eastern seed growers,” Patrick said in an email to The Intercept. “This was not about only dairy so but all of agriculture since all farms have risks of distorted facts,” he added. “We only want the whole truth to be told not just a few social media sites.”

The law made Idaho the seventh state to pass “ag-gag” efforts. Similar efforts have been signed into law in recent years in Utah, Iowa and Missouri.

This week, North Carolina may become the next state to do so. The North Carolina version of the act covers not just farms and agricultural facilities, but many other workplaces, including nursing homes and daycares — an expansion of the law that critics say will muffle whistleblowers. North Carolina Gov. Pat McCrory is deciding whether to sign or veto the legislation.

View the Idaho emails below:

DV.load('//www.documentcloud.org/documents/2084808-idaho-ag-gag.js', { width: '100%', height: '450', sidebar: false, container: '#dcv-2084808-idaho-ag-gag' });

And here’s the video:

 

(This post is from our blog: Unofficial Sources.)

Photo: Mercy for Animals on Flickr

The post Emails Reveal Dairy Lobbyist Crafted “Ag-Gag” Legislation Outlawing Pictures of Farms appeared first on The Intercept.

Fight G7 - Gemeinsam kämpfen gegen Kapitalismus, Rassismus und Krieg

Indymedia antimil - Πέμ, 28/05/2015 - 21:20
von: Perspektive Kommunismus am: 28.05.2015 - 21:20

In den vergangenen Monaten hat die Mobilisierung zum G7-Gipfel an Fahrt aufgenommen. Im gesamten Bundesgebiet mobilisieren Organisationen und Zusammenhänge zu Protesten gegen das Gipfeltreffen der mächtigsten Industriestaaten. In vielen Städten wurden lokale Bündnisse gegründet die sich ebenfalls an den Vorbereitungen der geplanten Proteste beteiligen. Vom 7. bis 8. Juni treffen sich die Staats- und Regierungschefs der G7 (Gruppe der Sieben) auf Schloss Elmau in Bayern. Die Politik der G7-Staaten steht für ständigen Krieg, für Ausbeutung und die Zerstörung der Natur.

Link zum Video / Stream: https://www.youtube.com/w...

Stop G7 - Auf nach Elmau!

Indymedia antimil - Πέμ, 28/05/2015 - 21:17
von: Stop G7..! am: 28.05.2015 - 21:17

In nur wenigen Tagen ist es soweit. Dann trifft sich die Gruppe der Sieben (G7) auf Schloss Elmau in Bayern.
Teilnehmer sind die Staats- und Regierungschefs Deutschlands, der USA, Japans, Großbritanniens, Frankreichs, Italiens und Kanadas, sowie tausende Deligierte und Journalisten. Die Politik der G7-Staaten bedeutet nichts anderes als neoliberale Wirtschaftspolitik, Krieg und Militarisierung, Ausbeutung, Armut und Hunger. Wir werden vom 3. bis 8. Juni lautstark unseren Protest und Widerstand gegen die Politik der G7 auf die Straße tragen.

Link zum Video / Stream: https://vimeo.com/1289244...

[PK] Fight G7 – Mobivideo und Stand der Mobilisierung

Indymedia antimil - Πέμ, 28/05/2015 - 21:08
von: Perspektive Kommunismus am: 28.05.2015 - 21:08

In den vergangenen Monaten hat die Mobilisierung zum G7-Gipfel an Fahrt aufgenommen. Im gesamten Bundesgebiet mobilisieren Organisationen und Zusammenhänge zu Protesten gegen das Gipfeltreffen der mächtigsten Industriestaaten. In vielen Städten wurden lokale Bündnisse gegründet die sich ebenfalls an den Vorbereitungen der geplanten Proteste beteiligen. Vom 7. bis 8. Juni treffen sich die Staats- und Regierungschefs der G7 (Gruppe der Sieben) auf Schloss Elmau in Bayern. Die Politik der G7-Staaten steht für ständigen Krieg, für Ausbeutung und die Zerstörung der Natur. Mit vielfältigen Aktionen, einem Camp sowie Großdemonstration und Blockaden wollen wir aufzeigen, dass Widerstand möglich ist und es Alternativen zu diesem System gibt.

Der antikapitalistische Protest gegen den Gipfel bündelt die tagtäglichen Kämpfe gegen das kapitalistische Krisensystem. Krieg, prekäre Arebit und Arbeitslosigkeit, Umweltzerstörung, rassistische Flüchtlingspolitik, Neokolonialismus – all dies, und noch mehr sind Gründe gegen den G7 auf die Straße zu gehen. Lasst uns Anfang Juni gemeinsam unseren Widerstand gegen die kapitalistischen Eliten und ihre Krisenpolitik in die bayrischen Alpen tragen.

Fight G7 - Aktion gegen Krieg und Militarisierung | 5. Juni 2015

Indymedia antimil - Πέμ, 28/05/2015 - 21:05
von: Fight G7... am: 28.05.2015 - 21:05

Am Freitag, den 5. Juni, möchten wir den Aktionstag nutzen und eine antimilitaristische Kundgebung am Marshall Center in Garmisch-Partenkirchen durchführen. Der G7-Gipfel, der dieses Jahr etwa 20 Kilometer entfernt auf Schloss Elmau stattfindet, steht für militärische Grenzabschottung, Besatzung und imperialistische Kriege. Das deutsch-amerikanische George C. Marshall Center sieht sich als "Europäisches Zentrum für Sicherheitsstudien" mit dem Zuständigkeitsbereich für Osteuropa und Zentralasien. Jedes Jahr werden dort mehr als 100 Aktivitäten konzipiert, ausgearbeitet und durchgeführt.

What Happens #IfThePatriotActExpires? ISIS, Hellfire, Doom

The Intercept - Engl. - Πέμ, 28/05/2015 - 21:04

Glenn Greenwald slammed the New York Times Thursday morning for a story quoting numerous anonymous senior officials who claimed that the non-renewal of three sections of the Patriot Act was tantamount to “playing national security Russian Roulette” in a time of unspecified “mounting terrorism threats.”

Sensing the true danger involved, many vigilant citizens (starting with @benmarlin) took to Twitter to highlight the imminent, mounting, terrifying terrorist threat inevitably unleashed #IfThePatriotActExpires.

Among the more amusing entries:

 

(This post is from our blog: Unofficial Sources.)

Photo: Zaid Jilani/Twitter

 

The post What Happens #IfThePatriotActExpires? ISIS, Hellfire, Doom appeared first on The Intercept.

Al Qaeda Syria Boss Says That His “So-Called Khorasan Group Doesn’t Exist”

The Intercept - Engl. - Πέμ, 28/05/2015 - 19:35

In early September 2014, an Associated Press story quoted unnamed U.S. officials discussing an imminent threat from a previously unknown, Syria-based terror outfit called the “Khorasan Group.” U.S. officials told the AP that the jihadist group was stocked with al Qaeda veterans and was plotting imminent attacks against U.S.-bound airline flights. Officials also suggested that the level of danger posed by the group exceeded that of ISIS, the militant group which now controls much of Iraq and Syria.

Weeks later, after similarly breathless coverage of the so-called Khorasan Group from the New York Times, the Washington Post, CNN, NBC News, CBS News, and others, American airstrikes against Syria commenced, including strikes that were said to have specifically targeted this shadowy new organization.

In the immediate aftermath of the strikes, something remarkable happened. American officials almost immediately began retracting their claims about the level of danger posed by the Khorasan Group. FBI Director James Comey, addressing previous assertions that the group posed an imminent threat to American interests, said, “I don’t know exactly what that word means…’imminent.’”

After the airstrikes had commenced, reports began to surface that no identifiable Syrian activists within the country had ever heard of such an organization. Days after the U.S. initiated military operations within Syria, it became increasingly unclear whether the “Khorasan Group” itself actually existed.

Yesterday, the head of al Qaeda’s affiliate in Syria gave the clearest indication yet that the group is a fabrication. In an interview conducted with Al Jazeera Arabic, Abu Muhammad al Jolani, the head of Jabhat al Nusra, said the following:

“The so-called Khorasan group, supposedly active within our ranks, doesn’t exist. We first heard about it via the media after the U.S.-led coalition bombed us. It is merely a Western invention to justify the bombings on us. There are some brothers from Khorasan who joined our strife though.”

In comments to The Intercept, Aaron Zelin, who analyzes contemporary jihadist movements for the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, also cast doubt on the idea that there was any distinct outfit called the Khorasan Group, saying that instead “there were individuals who were dispatched by Ayman al Zawahiri to join Jabhat al Nusra in Syria … internally within the U.S. government they created a nickname for these people called ‘Khorasan.'”

Jabhat al Nusra, designated as a terrorist group by the United States, is one of several militant groups fighting to topple the Assad regime in Syria. Despite its links to al Qaeda, it is widely popular in Syria due to its perceived effectiveness in fighting government forces.

“When the U.S. did an airstrike on a Jabhat al Nusra headquarters and called it ‘Khorasan’, locals there simply perceived it as an attack on mainstream rebel forces which had gained their trust,” said Zelin. “My read on why they called it the ‘Khorasan Group’ instead of saying Jabhat al Nusra is because I think the U.S. government understands that Jabhat al-Nusra has local support. But this euphemism hasn’t fooled anyone.”

In the immediate run-up to the American airstrikes against Syria, mentions of the “Khorasan Group” in the media immediately skyrocketed. After the strikes commenced, mentions of the group and the purportedly dire threat it posed to U.S. interests almost completely disappeared. Having seemingly come out of nowhere to provide justification for American military involvement in the Syrian conflict, the Khorasan Group suddenly fell off the radar.

A story published in the Associated Press this March by Ken Dilanian, the same reporter who had initially reported U.S. government claims on the threat posed by the group, stated that U.S. airstrikes had hit 17 “Khorasan” targets in Syria. Claims about the threat posed by the organization, once reportedly dire, had also apparently become muddled and unverifiable. And like much of the present U.S. military campaign in Iraq and Syria, the putative war against this group has been largely opaque. A strike reportedly conducted against “Khorasan targets” last November near Harim City, Syria was later found by a U.S. military investigation to likely have resulted in the deaths of two children.

Since the commencement of airstrikes in Syria last September, the U.S. has become fully invested as a belligerent in that country’s civil war. While the “Khorasan Group” designation itself was partly a fiction created by the U.S. government, simply a nickname created for a group of people within Syria whom it wanted to bomb, it was reported at the time in hyperbolic media reports as not only a real, discrete organization, but also a more dangerous threat to Americans than the Islamic State.

None of the subsequent reports about these initial threat posed by the group has ever been substantiated. Indeed, highly-credulous reporting on the group at the time did not even do so much as discern whether the organization itself independently existed at all. The “Khorasan Group”, after helping quickly manipulate public opinion to win acceptance for yet another American war in the Middle East, simply disappeared from government statements and media reports as quickly as it first rose to prominence.

Photo: AP/Edlib News Network ENN

The post Al Qaeda Syria Boss Says That His “So-Called Khorasan Group Doesn’t Exist” appeared first on The Intercept.

U.N. Report Asserts Encryption as a Human Right in the Digital Age

The Intercept - Engl. - Πέμ, 28/05/2015 - 18:46

Encryption is not the refuge of scoundrels, as Obama administration law-enforcement officials loudly proclaim – it is an essential tool needed to protect the right of freedom of opinion and expression in the digital age, a new United Nations report concludes.

Encryption that makes a communication unintelligible to anyone but the intended recipient creates “a zone of privacy to protect opinion and belief,” says the report from David Kaye, who as Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression is essentially the U.N.’s free speech watchdog.

The significance of encryption extends well beyond political speech, Kaye writes. “The ability to search the web, develop ideas and communicate securely may be the only way in which many can explore basic aspects of identity, such as one’s gender, religion, ethnicity, national origin or sexuality.”

Encryption, like anonymity, is essential to artists, journalists, whistleblowers, and many other classes of people, the report says.

And far from banning or weakening encryption, governments should embrace and strengthen it, Kay writes. He specifically urges the U.S. Congress to “prohibit the Government from requiring companies to weaken product security or insert back-door access measures.”

Obama administration officials have been advocating for encryption with some sort of built-in measure that law enforcement could circumvent, either an intentional weakness that creates a “back door,” or some sort of split “master key”.

Newly-installed Attorney General Loretta Lynch on Wednesday became the latest to engage in fear-mongering, saying she had “grave concerns” about encryption’s use by “people whose sworn duty is to harm Americans here and abroad.”

National Security Agency director Mike Rogers took a slightly more nuanced view on Wednesday, ZDNet reported. “You’re not going to hear me say that encryption is a bad thing. I don’t think it is a bad thing. Encryption is not bad. Encryption is a fundamental part of the future; I think it would be ridiculous to pretend otherwise,” Rogers told a cyberwarfare conference in Estonia.

But he expressed his desire for a legal framework that would give law enforcement access, asking: “Can we create some mechanism where within this legal framework there’s a means to access information that directly relates to the security of our respective nations, even as at the same time we are mindful we have got to protect the rights of our individual citizens?”

Kaye’s answer is: No. He concludes from his research that “compromised encryption cannot be kept secret from those with the skill to find and exploit the weak points, whether State or non-State, legitimate or criminal.” Thus: “In the contemporary technological environment, intentionally compromising encryption, even for arguably legitimate purposes, weakens everyone’s security online.”

And Kaye points out that law enforcement officials “have not demonstrated that criminal or terrorist use of encryption serves as an insuperable barrier to law enforcement objectives.”

Indeed, FBI Director James Comey gave a much-quoted speech last fall about how increasingly common cell-phone encryption could lead law enforcement to a “very dark place” where it “misses out” on crucial evidence to nail criminals. But the examples he then gave failed the laugh test.

The United Nation’s Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights appoints expert “special rapporteurs” to be their eyes and ears when it comes to key human rights issues. Kaye, a law professor at the University of California, Irvine, began his three-year term as the rapporteur for freedom of opinion and expression in August 2014.

His report also warns that state prohibitions of anonymity online – such as required real-name registration for online activity, SIM card registration, or banning of anonymity tools such as Tor — interfere with the right to freedom of expression.

Encryption advocates hailed the report. “This landmark report shows how fundamental — and necessary — encryption is for exercising freedom of expression,” said Access Senior Policy Counsel Peter Micek. “It’s a sober rebuke of baseless fear-mongering from those who say encryption only helps criminals and terrorists.”

(This post is from our blog: Unofficial Sources.)

Photo: Chris Jackson/Getty Images

The post U.N. Report Asserts Encryption as a Human Right in the Digital Age appeared first on The Intercept.

SPD-Basis macht Front gegen Vorratsdatenspeicherung

Hintergrund.de - Πέμ, 28/05/2015 - 17:50

(28.5.2015/hg/dpa)

In der SPD formiert sich breiter Widerstand gegen die gerade beschlossene neue Vorratsdatenspeicherung. Rund 100 SPD-Gliederungen haben für den Parteikonvent im Juni Anträge eingereicht, in denen das umstrittene Ermittlungsinstrument für den Anti-Terror-Kampf abgelehnt wird. Um den Streit zu entschärfen, hält es SPD-Vize Ralf Stegner grundsätzlich für möglich, das Gesetz zeitlich zu befristen. "Das ist ein Vorschlag, der eine Brücke bauen könnte", sagte er am Donnerstag der Deutschen Presse-Agentur. Auch in der SPD-Bundestagsfraktion wird diese Variante in Teilen durchgespielt.

Die Parteiführung ist davon nicht angetan. Es mache keinen Sinn, das mit der Union mühsam verabredete Maßnahmenpaket noch einmal aufzuschnüren, hieß es.

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Druck auf FIFA nach Korruptionsskandal

Hintergrund.de - Πέμ, 28/05/2015 - 17:50

(28.5./dpa/hg)  

Der Fußball-Weltverband FIFA steht nach den skandalösen Entwicklungen mit Festnahmen und Suspendierungen weltweit am Pranger. Nach Ermittlungen aus den USA waren am Mittwoch sieben Spitzenfunktionäre, darunter auch die FIFA-Vizepräsidenten Jeffrey Webb (Kaimaninseln) und Eugenio Figueredo (Uruguay), in Zürich festgenommen worden. Insgesamt stehen 14 Personen unter Korruptionsverdacht. Die US-Justiz hat auch gegen den früheren Chef des südamerikanischen Fußballverbandes CONMEBOL in Paraguay, Nicolás Leoz, einen internationalen Haftbefehl erwirkt. Jack Warner, eine weitere Schlüsselfigur, hatte sich am Mittwoch in Trinidad und Tobago der Polizei gestellt und wurde nach Zahlung einer Kaution von 2,5 Millionen Dollar auf freien Fuß gesetzt.

Mittlerweile haben mehrere Sponsoren

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Inside NSA, Officials Privately Criticize “Collect It All” Surveillance

The Intercept - Engl. - Πέμ, 28/05/2015 - 17:38

AS MEMBERS OF CONGRESS struggle to agree on which surveillance programs to re-authorize before the Patriot Act expires, they might consider the unusual advice of an intelligence analyst at the National Security Agency who warned about the danger of collecting too much data. Imagine, the analyst wrote in a leaked document, that you are standing in a shopping aisle trying to decide between jam, jelly or fruit spread, which size, sugar-free or not, generic or Smucker’s. It can be paralyzing.

“We in the agency are at risk of a similar, collective paralysis in the face of a dizzying array of choices every single day,” the analyst wrote in 2011. “’Analysis paralysis’ isn’t only a cute rhyme. It’s the term for what happens when you spend so much time analyzing a situation that you ultimately stymie any outcome …. It’s what happens in SIGINT [signals intelligence] when we have access to endless possibilities, but we struggle to prioritize, narrow, and exploit the best ones.”

The document is one of about a dozen in which NSA intelligence experts express concerns usually heard from the agency’s critics: that the U.S. government’s “collect it all” strategy can undermine the effort to fight terrorism. The documents, provided to The Intercept by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden, appear to contradict years of statements from senior officials who have claimed that pervasive surveillance of global communications helps the government identify terrorists before they strike or quickly find them after an attack.

The Patriot Act, which expires on Sunday, has been used since 2001 to conduct a number of dragnet surveillance programs, including the bulk collection of phone metadata from American companies. But the documents suggest that analysts at the NSA have drowned in data since 9/11, making it more difficult for them to find the real threats. The titles of the documents capture their overall message: “Data Is Not Intelligence,” “The Fallacies Behind the Scenes,” “Cognitive Overflow?” “Summit Fever” and “In Praise of Not Knowing.” Other titles include “Dealing With a ‘Tsunami’ of Intercept” and “Overcome by Overload?”

The documents are not uniform in their positions. Some acknowledge the overload problem but say the agency is adjusting well. They do not specifically mention the Patriot Act, just the larger dilemma of cutting through a flood of incoming data. But in an apparent sign of the scale of the problem, the documents confirm that the NSA even has a special category of programs that is called “Coping With Information Overload.”

The jam vs. jelly document, titled “Too Many Choices,” started off in a colorful way but ended with a fairly stark warning: “The SIGINT mission is far too vital to unnecessarily expand the haystacks while we search for the needles. Prioritization is key.”

These doubts are infrequently heard from officials inside the NSA. These documents are a window into the private thinking of mid-level officials who are almost never permitted to discuss their concerns in public.

AN AMUSING PARABLE circulated at the NSA a few years ago.

Two people go to a farm and purchase a truckload of melons for a dollar each. They then sell the melons along a busy road for the same price, a dollar. As they drive back to the farm for another load, they realize they aren’t making a profit, so one of them suggests, “Do you think we need a bigger truck?”

The parable was written by an intelligence analyst in a document dated Jan. 23, 2012 that was titled, “Do We Need a Bigger SIGINT Truck?” It expresses, in a lively fashion, a critique of the agency’s effort to collect what former NSA Director Keith Alexander referred to as “the whole haystack.” The critique goes to the heart of the agency’s drive to gather as much of the world’s communications as possible: because it may not find what it needs in a partial haystack of data, the haystack is expanded as much as possible, on the assumption that more data will eventually yield useful information.

“The problem is that when you collect it all, when you monitor everyone, you understand nothing.”
–Edward Snowden

The Snowden files show that in practice, it doesn’t turn out that way: more is not necessarily better, and in fact, extreme volume creates its own challenges.

“Recently I tried to answer what seemed like a relatively straightforward question about which telephony metadata collection capabilities are the most important in case we need to shut something off when the metadata coffers get full,” wrote the intelligence analyst. “By the end of the day, I felt like capitulating with the white flag of, ‘We need COLOSSAL data storage so we don’t have to worry about it,’ (aka we need a bigger SIGINT truck).” The analyst added, “Without metrics, how do we know that we have improved something or made it worse? There’s a running joke … that we’ll only know if collection is important by shutting it off and seeing if someone screams.”

Another document, while not mentioning the dangers of collecting too much data, expressed concerns about pursuing entrenched but unproductive programs.

“How many times have you been watching a terrible movie, only to convince yourself to stick it out to the end and find out what happens, since you’ve already invested too much time or money to simply walk away?” the document asked. “This ‘gone too far to stop now’ mentality is our built-in mechanism to help us allocate and ration resources. However, it can work to our detriment in prioritizing and deciding which projects or efforts are worth further expenditure of resources, regardless of how much has already been ‘sunk.’ As has been said before, insanity is doing the same thing over and over and expecting different results.”

“We are drowning in information. And yet we know nothing. For sure.”
–NSA Intelligence Analyst

Many of these documents were written by intelligence analysts who had regular columns distributed on NSANet, the agency’s classified intranet. One of the columns was called “Signal v. Noise,” another was called “The SIGINT Philosopher.” Two of the documents cite the academic work of Herbert Simon, who won a Nobel Prize for his pioneering research on what’s become known as the attention economy. Simon wrote that consumers and managers have trouble making smart choices because their exposure to more information decreases their ability to understand the information. Both documents mention the same passage from Simon’s essay, Designing Organizations for an Information-Rich World:

“…In an information-rich world, the wealth of information means a dearth of something else: a scarcity of whatever it is that information consumes. What information consumes is rather obvious: it consumes the attention of its recipients. Hence a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention and a need to allocate that attention efficiently among the overabundance of information sources that might consume it.”

In addition to consulting Nobel-prize winning work, NSA analysts have turned to easier literature, such as Malcolm Gladwell’s best-selling Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking. The author of a 2011 document referenced Blink and stated, “The key to good decision making is not knowledge. It is understanding. We are swimming in the former. We are desperately lacking in the latter.” The author added, “Gladwell has captured one of the biggest challenges facing SID today. Our costs associated with this information overload are not only financial, such as the need to build data warehouses large enough to store the mountain of data that arrives at our doorstep each day, but also include the more intangible costs of too much data to review, process, translate and report.”

Alexander, the NSA director from 2005 to 2014 and chief proponent of the agency’s “collect it all” strategy, vigorously defended the bulk collection programs. “What we have, from my perspective, is a reasonable approach on how we can defend our nation and protect our civil liberties and privacy,” he said at a security conference in Aspen in 2013. He added, “You need the haystack to find the needle.” The same point has been made by other officials, including James Cole, the former deputy attorney general who told a congressional committee in 2013, “If you’re looking for the needle in the haystack, you have to have the entire haystack to look through.”

NSA Slide, May 2011

The opposing viewpoint was voiced earlier this month by Snowden, who noted in an interview with the Guardian that the men who committed recent terrorist attacks in France, Canada and Australia were under surveillance—their data was in the haystack yet they weren’t singled out. “It wasn’t the fact that we weren’t watching people or not,” Snowden said. “It was the fact that we were watching people so much that we did not understand what we had. The problem is that when you collect it all, when you monitor everyone, you understand nothing.”

In a 2011 interview with SIDtoday, a deputy director in the Signals Intelligence Directorate was asked about “analytic modernization” at the agency. His response, while positive on the NSA’s ability to surmount obstacles, noted that it faced difficulties, including the fact that some targets use encryption and switch phone numbers to avoid detection. He pointed to volume as a particular problem.

“We live in an Information Age when we have massive reserves of information and don’t have the capability to exploit it,” he stated. “I was told that there are 2 petabytes of data in the SIGINT System at any given time. How much is that? That’s equal to 20 million 4-drawer filing cabinets. How many cabinets per analyst is that? By the end of this year, we’ll have 1 terabyte of data per second coming in. You can’t crank that through the existing processes and be effective.”

The documents noted the difficulty of sifting through the ever-growing haystack of data. For instance, a 2011 document titled “ELINT Analysts – Overcome by Overload? Help is Here with IM&S” outlined a half dozen computer tools that “are designed to invert the paradigm where an analyst spends more time searching for data than analyzing it.” Another document, written by an intelligence analyst in 2010, bluntly stated, “We are drowning in information. And yet we know nothing. For sure.” The analyst went on to ask, “Anyone know just how many tools are available at the Agency, alone? Would you know where to go to find out? Anyone ever start a new target…without the first clue where to begin? Did you ever start a project wondering if you were the sole person in the Intelligence Community to work this project? How would you find out?” The analyst, trying to encourage more sharing of tips about the best ways to find data in the haystack, concluded by writing, in boldface, “Don’t let those coming behind you suffer the way you have.”

The agency appears to be spending significant sums of money to solve the haystack problem. The document headlined “Dealing With a ‘Tsunami’ of Intercept,” written in 2006 by three NSA officials and previously published by The Intercept, outlined a series of programs to prepare for a near future in which the speed and volume of signals intelligence would explode “almost beyond imagination.” The document referred to a mysterious NSA entity–the “Coping With Information Overload Office.” This appears to be related to an item in the Intelligence Community’s 2013 Budget Justification to Congress, known as the “black budget”—$48.6 million for projects related to “Coping with Information Overload.”

The data glut is felt in the NSA’s partner agency in Britain, too. A slideshow entitled “A Short Introduction to SIGINT,” from the GCHQ, the British intelligence agency, posed the following question: “How are people supposed to keep on top of all their targets and the new ones when they have far more than [they] could do in a day? How are they supposed to find the needle in the haystack and prioritise what is most important to look at?” The slideshow continued, “Give an analyst three leads, one of which is interesting: they may have time to follow that up. Give them three hundred leads, ten of which are interesting: that’s probably not much use.”

These documents tend to shy away from confrontation—they express concern with the status quo but do not blame senior officials or demand an abrupt change of course. They were written by agency staffers who appear to believe in the general mission of the NSA. For instance, the author of a “SIGINT Philosopher” column wrote that if the NSA was a corporation, it could have the following mission statement: “building informed decision makers—so that targets do not suffer our nation’s wrath unless they really deserve it—by exercising deity-like monitoring of the target.”

On occasion, however, the veil of bureaucratic deference is lowered. In another “SIGINT Philosopher” column, “Cognitive Overflow?,” the author offered a forthright assessment of the haystack problem and the weakness of proposed solutions:

“If an individual brain has finite ‘channel capacity,’ does the vast collective of SID, comprised of thousands of brilliant, yet limited, brains also have a definite ‘channel capacity’? If so, what is it? How do we know when we’ve reached it? What if we’ve already exceeded it? In essence, could SID’s reach exceed its grasp? Can the combined cognitive power of SID connect all the necessary dots to avoid, predict, or advise when the improbable, complex, or unthinkable happens?”

The column did not offer an optimistic view.

“Take for example the number of tools, clearances, systems, compliances, and administrative requirements we encounter before we even begin to engage in the work of the mission itself,” the column continued. “The mission then involves an ever-expanding set of complex issues, targets, accesses, and capabilities. The ‘cognitive burden,’ so to speak, must at times feel overwhelming to some of us.”

The analyst who wrote the column dismissed, politely but firmly, the typical response of senior officials when they are asked in public about their ability to find needles in their expanding haystack.

“Surely someone will point out that the burgeoning amalgam of technological advances will aid us in shouldering the burden,” he noted. “However, historically, this scenario doesn’t seem to completely bear out. The onslaught of more computer power—often intended to automate some processes—has in many respects demanded an expansion of our combined ‘channel capacity’ rather than curbing the flow of the information.”

______

Documents published with this article:

The post Inside NSA, Officials Privately Criticize “Collect It All” Surveillance appeared first on The Intercept.

Legendary Journalist in Private: “It Is All Fraudulent, All of It, Everywhere”

The Intercept - Engl. - Πέμ, 28/05/2015 - 16:49

Politico recently ran a fantastic historical profile of journalist Theodore H. White by the writer Scott Porch. White invented the genre of modern presidential campaign books with The Making of the President, 1960 (and then 1964, 1968 and 1972).

The 1960 version, which won a Pulitzer Prize and sold four million copies, describes John F. Kennedy as a “forlorn and lonesome young man … lithe as an athlete … handsome and tired, with just a fleck of gray now in his glossy brown hair” who “baffled” the “old-line politicians of Tammany.” Then after Kennedy was assassinated, White helped Jackie Kennedy create the “Camelot” myth of his presidency.

In other words, White publicly took the stance that U.S. politicians and politics were just super. This is from the first pages of The Making of the President, 1960:

I owe two general acknowledgments:

First, to the politicians of America — men whom I have found over the long years the pleasantest, shrewdest and generally the most honorable of companions …

Second, I must thank my comrades of the press — whose reporting at every level of America politics purifies, protects and refreshes our system from year to year.

But what did White think about U.S. politics in private? See if you can spot the subtle difference between White’s public statements and this letter he wrote to a close friend on August 31, 1960 during the Kennedy-Nixon campaign:

…it is all fraudulent, all of it, everywhere, up and down, East and West. The movies, radio and state and books and TV — all of them are fraudulent; and the foundations and universities and scholars, they are all fraudulent too; and the executives and the financiers … and the Commissars and the Krushchevs and the Mao Tze-tungs, they are fraudulent equally; it is all a great game; and there are two dangers in this great game: first, the fraudulent people come to believe their own lies, they come to have faith in their fraud; and second, underneath it all, because people are fundamentally good, they come to realize that we live in lies and the people get angrier and angrier and they may explode.

The scenery of politics is ridiculous, absolutely ridiculous. Yet I must report all this as serious. This is the strain on me. That I must be serious, and I must exhaust myself trying to find out what is true and what is fraud and yet, even after I know, I must take them both seriously and write of them both as if I did not know the true distinctions between them.

(Thanks to Porch, who quotes some of the 1960 letter, for sending me the whole thing.)

(This post is from our blog: Unofficial Sources.)

PHOTO: Author Theodore H. White poses in his New York City apartment with the book that won him the Pulitzer Prize on May 7, 1962. (AP)

The post Legendary Journalist in Private: “It Is All Fraudulent, All of It, Everywhere” appeared first on The Intercept.

Snowden - Kirchner: Ausgefallene Sensation

Indymedia antimil - Πέμ, 28/05/2015 - 16:42
von: anonym am: 28.05.2015 - 16:42

Sie können sich bestimmt an den Besuch von der argentinischen Präsidentin Cristina Fernándes de Kirchner in Russland erinnern. Es war ein historischer Moment für die beiden Staaten: Es wurden mehr als 20 Verträge unterschrieben. Doch blieb das Wichtigste im Off.

Hacked Emails Reveal Russian Plans to Obtain Sensitive Western Tech

The Intercept - Engl. - Πέμ, 28/05/2015 - 16:32

In April 2014, Viktor Tarasov wrote to the head of Ruselectronics, a Russian state-owned holding company, about a critical shortage of military equipment. The Russian military lacked thermal imaging systems — devices commonly used to detect people and vehicles — and Tarasov believed that technology might be needed soon because of the “increasingly complex situation in the southeast of Ukraine and the possible participation of Russian forces” to stabilize the region.

Tarasov, in charge of Ruselectronics’ optical tech subsidiary, was hoping that the head of Ruselectronics would write to the minister of defense for armaments to advance his company 150 million rubles, then about $4 million, to buy 500 microbolometer arrays, a critical component of thermal imaging devices. The money, Tarasov wrote, would allow the company to buy the equipment under a current contract from a French company without the need for signing a new “end-use certificate,” which requires the buyer to disclose the final recipient.

Time was of the essence, he warned, because the West was preparing another round of sanctions against Russia that would slow the purchases and increase costs. Tarasov also claimed that the United States was already providing similar equipment to Ukrainian forces. (Pentagon spokesperson Eileen Lainez confirmed that the Department of Defense had provided thermal imaging devices and night-vision goggles to Ukraine in 2014, along with a variety of other military equipment).

From the “Business plan for commercialization of infrared photodetectors,” whose goal it is to supply vision systems for “the Ministry of Defense and other security agencies of the Russian Federation.”

The letter is a rare direct acknowledgment of Russia’s military involvement in Ukraine, yet even more uniquely, it’s a window into Russia’s evasion of Western sanctions, at least according to the U.S. cybersecurity firm Taia Global, which acquired a copy of the text. The correspondence is part of a larger cache of more than 9,000 emails obtained from the account of Alexey Beseda, a key figure involved in the plan and the son of a prominent official in the FSB, Russia’s security service and successor to the Soviet-era KGB.

In an email, Beseda insisted that his emails showed no wrongdoing. He declined to comment further on the record.

Russians sympathetic to Ukraine hacked Beseda’s email, according to Jeffrey Carr, the founder and president of Taia Global, a four-year-old consulting firm. Taia has provided advice to multinational corporations and to the U.S. government, which has been critical of Russia’s actions in Ukraine.

Carr, a longtime author and lecturer on cybersecurity and cyberwarfare, said he was given the emails by the hackers.

The emails cover the years 2006 to 2014 and include a number of messages among key Russian business people that detail their plans to obtain the thermal imaging production equipment from foreign sources. Taia’s report based on those emails was provided to The Intercept — along with the emails themselves. The report says the messages show the Russian government is able to obtain “foreign technology critical to Russian defense industries by bypassing foreign sanctions.”

Taia believes that efforts by Tarasov’s optical tech operation, Central Research Institute Cyclone, date back to 2013, when Dmitry Rogozin, deputy prime minister in charge of Russia’s defense industry, warned of a critical lack of thermal imaging devices. “At present, the Russian Army only has a few hundred individual imagers and no sighting systems and machine vision systems with advanced performance,” Rogozin wrote to the chairman of the Russian Bank for Development and Foreign Affairs in a communication obtained through Beseda’s email account. “On the other hand, our potential enemy troops — NATO, are equipped with hundreds of thousands of thermal imaging sights, sighting and vision systems.”

The reason for the shortfall was Russia’s inability to produce a critical component — microbolometer arrays — which can capture images without requiring cooling, reducing the size and complexity of thermal imaging systems.

Shortly after Rogozin’s letter, the email correspondence shows that Cyclone established a new company, called Cyclone-IR, whose job was to acquire the technology needed for domestic production of thermal imaging systems. The company was set up as a joint venture of Cyclone and a new company called Rayfast, which was registered in Cyprus. Rayfast, in turn, was owned by three other companies.

Taia alleges that Cyclone-IR then tried to hide its military links — since Cyclone is known as a military supplier — by changing its name to Photoelectric Devices LLC, whose website prominently features civilian applications for thermal sights, like firefighting.

Several Western companies listed in the email cache as potential suppliers of sensitive technology to Russia denied doing any business with Cyclone or the companies believed to be associated with it. Ulis, the French maker of microbolometer arrays mentioned in Tarasov’s 2014 letter, said that it had not made any sales to Cyclone or associated companies. A spokesperson for Ulis said that Cyclone “is not a customer. On top of that, it’s not the type of company they wish to be associated with either.”

Oxford Instruments, another company mentioned in the documents and correspondence as a potential supplier of photodetector equipment also denied doing business with Cyclone. “Oxford Instruments’ Plasma Technology business is aware of Cyclone and to the best of its knowledge, it has not sold any products or services to Cyclone or any of the subsidiaries you mention, and definitely not since the imposition of sanctions,” Rachel Hirst, the company’s managing director, wrote in an email. (One email to Tarasov from a Russian supplier refers to ways to deal with customs descriptions for Oxford Instruments’ equipment that is “for Cyclone.” The email is from 2013, prior to the imposition of sanctions.)

Santa Barbara Infrared, an American company listed in the documents as a potential supplier, did not return email or phone messages.

If Taia’s claims are accurate, it wouldn’t be the first time that Russia has been implicated in efforts to obtain sensitive imaging equipment from Western suppliers. Last year, Russian national Dmitry Ustinov was charged by the U.S. Department of Justice with using a front company, also based in Cyprus, to buy a variety of night-vision scopes and related equipment from the United States. (In one email with the subject line “related,” Tarasov sent Beseda a link to the article about Ustinov’s indictment.)

Ustinov, a Russian national, was arrested in Lithuania and then extradited to the United States to face charges of violating U.S. arms-export laws. According to the indictment, Ustinov arranged to purchase night-vision equipment using the e-commerce hub eBay. Although it is not necessarily against the law to buy or sell night-vision equipment on websites like eBay, many of the items are illegal to export without a license. (The U.S. military also has been investigating some of the online sales, as The Intercept has previously reported.)

Ustinov pled guilty, and was immediately deported back to Russia. The Russian government criticized what it called the U.S. government’s “hunt” for Russian citizens abroad.

In the case of Cyclone, Taia’s analysis concludes the company was working with the FSB and that the “Alexey Sergeyvich Beseda is almost certainly an FSB officer.” That charge, Taia’s Carr concedes, is difficult to prove, and there is nothing in the emails that identifies Alexey Beseda as an FSB officer.

Alexey Beseda’s father, Sergey Beseda is an acknowledged senior FSB officer, and has been accused by the current Ukrainian government of being involved in the deadly crackdown during last year’s Euromaidan protests. The elder Beseda is currently on the list of persons sanctioned by the U.S. government.

It was Sergey Beseda’s involvement in Ukraine that motivated the hackers to target his son Alexey Besedov, according to Carr.

Tarasov, the head of Cyclone, did not return an email seeking comment, and a spokesperson for the Russian embassy in Washington, D.C. declined to comment on Taia’s report.

Karen Dawisha, a professor of political science at the University of Miami, said she wasn’t surprised by Taia’s report, or its findings. “We’re talking about shell companies — shells within shells of shells,” she said. “You can’t unravel that ball of yarn, and you can’t figure it out, because it’s all connected.”

The type of front operation that Taia alleges is typical of how the KGB operated in the 1980s, when spies based in East Germany would use shell companies to obtain military technology from the West, says Dawisha, whose recent book, Putin’s Kleptocracy, details the close links between Russian power brokers and private industry.

“It was Germany before, it’s Cyprus now,” she said.

Photo: President Vladimir Putin visiting Cyclone Central Research Institute in 2012: (Kremlin.ru)

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The post Hacked Emails Reveal Russian Plans to Obtain Sensitive Western Tech appeared first on The Intercept.

Friedensnobelpreis 2015 geht an... Poroschenko?

Indymedia antimil - Πέμ, 28/05/2015 - 15:22
von: Politgraben am: 28.05.2015 - 15:22

Der Friedensnobelpreis wird seit 1901 verliehen. Viele würdige Persönlichkeiten, die wirklich für den Weltfrieden gekämpft hatten, wurden damit ausgezeichnet. Es gab aber solche Kandidaturen, die man Friedenskämpfer nicht zu nennen sind.

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